Hesi Eka Puteri(1*), Zuwardi Zuwardi(2)

(1) IAIN Bukittinggi
(2) IAIN Bukittinggi
(*) Corresponding Author


This study investigates the implementation of culture and religiosity in credit management and then attempts to analyze the effect of culture and religiosity to the breadth of outreach in Rural Banks. This research is a quantitative study based on a survey at Rural Banks in West Sumatera Indonesia in 2018, with a sample of 52 Rural Bank. Data were collected by using questionaire and analyzed by PLS-regression.. The independent sample t-test also applied to compare the breadth of outreach or social performance in Conventional Rural Banks and Islamic rural banks. This study proves that the breadth of outreach is influenced by culture and religiosity and there is no difference of the breadth of outreach between Conventional Rural Bank and Islamic Rural Bank. These finding extends the predictor of the breadth of outreach in Rural Banks and offer a more established model of causal relationships between culture and religiosity to the breadth of outreach. This study also proves that there is no difference in the breadth of outreach between Conventional Rural Banks and Islamic Rural Banks, which means that there are no differences in the achievement of the social performance of these two types of micro financial institutions.

Penelitian ini menganalis implementasi aspek budaya dan religiusitas dalam manajemen kredit untuk kemudian mengelaborasi lebih lanjut pengaruh faktor budaya dan religiusitas terhadap keluasan jangkauan Bank Perkreditan Rakyat (BPR). Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif berdasarkan survey pada BPR-BPR di Provinsi Sumatera Barat Indonesia pada tahun 2018, dengan sampel sebanyak 52 BPR. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan kuesioner dan dianalisis dengan Regresi PLS untuk memprediksi dampak budaya dan religiusitas terhadap keluasan jangkauan. Uji-independent sample t -test juga diterapkan untuk membandingkan keluasan jangkauan BPR Konvensional dan BPR Syariah. Penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa keluasan jangkauan dipengaruhi oleh budaya dan religiusitas dan tidak ada perbedaan keluasan jangkauan antara BPR Konvensional dan BPR Syariah. Temuan ini memperluas prediktor keluasan jangkauan di Bank Perkreditan Rakyat dan menawarkan model hubungan sebab akibat yang lebih mapan antara budaya dan religiusitas terhadap keluasan jangkauan. Penelitian ini juga membuktikan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan keluasan jangkauan antara BPR Konvensional dan BPR Syariah, yang berarti tidak ada perbedaan dalam pencapaian kinerja sosial kedua jenis lembaga keuangan ini.


breadth of outreach; culture; religiosity; rural bank

Full Text:



Ahlin, C., Lin, J., & and Michael Maio. (2011). “Where Does Micro Finance Flourish ? In Micro Finance Institution Performance in Macroeconomic Context” 95 (pp. 105–20). https://doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2010.04.004

Al-azzam, M., & Ali, M. A. (2012). The Impact of Socioeconomic Factors and Financial Access on Microfinance Institutions. https://doi.org/doi:10.5539/ijef.v4n4p61

Arsyad, Lincolin. (2008). Lembaga Keuangan Mikro; Institusi, Kinerja & Sustanabilitas., Penerbit: CV Andi Offset.

Aslam, M. N. (2015). Role of Islamic Microfinance in Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan : An Empirical Approach. https://doi.org/doi:10.6007/IJARAFMS/v4-i4/1288

Brau, J. C., & and Gary M Woller. (2004). Microfinance : A Comprehensive Review of the Existing Literature Microfinance : A Comprehensive Review of the Existing Literature. Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance and Business Ventures, 9(1), 1–28.

Christen, R. P., & Rhyne, E. (1995). Maximizing the Outreach of Microenterprise Finance: The Emerging Lessons of Successful Programs. USAID, CAER Consulting Assistance on Economic Reform. Discussion Paper, 32.

D. Larcker, C. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50.

Deubeul, T. F. (2003). “Banking on Culture: Microcredit as incentive for cultural conservation. In Mali, on Microfinance”. Perils and Prospects, Routledge Series on Economic Development, 2006, edited by Jude L Fernando.

Erdmann, J., Horne, C., Kaletta, C., & and Marius Wagner. (2012). “Microfinance and Culture The Impact. In of Microcredits on Culture in Kenya,” (pp. 1–13).

Farooq, M., & Khan, Z. (2014). The Social and Financial Performance of Conventional and Islamic Microfinance Institutions in Pakistan. Journal Al-Idah.

Gakhar, K. (2015). “Financial Performance and Outreach Of Microfinance Institutions : Is There A Trade- Off ? - An Empirical Study Of Indian, 7(4), 1–10.

Gashayie, A. (2014). Relationship Of Financial Sustainability And Outreach In Ethiopian Microfinance Institutions : Empirical Evidence. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting. ISSN, 2222(1697), 5–17.

Hair, J. F. R., C.M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). . “PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet.” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–151.

Hans, P., & Seibel, D. (2007). The Role of Microfinance in Rural Microenterprise Development The Role of Microfinance in Rural Microenterprise Development, 8616(February).

Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s Consequences Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations (2nd edn). CA: Sage Thousand Oaks.

Kaur, P. (2014). “Outreach and Sustainability of Microfinance. In Institutions in India in Pre and Post Andhra Pradesh Microfinance Crisis in Context of South Asia” (Vol. 6, pp. 569–74).

Lafourcade, A.-L., Isern, J., Mwangi, P., & and Matthew Brown. (2006). Overview of the Outreach and Financial Performance of Microfinance Institutions in Africa. MIX Bulletin.

Ledgerwood, J. (1999). Microfinance Handbook: An Institutional and Financial Perspective. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Ledgerwood, J., & White. (1999). Transforming Microfinance Institutions Providing Full Financial Services to the Poor. The World Bank-Microfinance Network.

Leonard, M. (2010). Microsave – Market-Led Solutions For Financial Services Microsave Fokus. Notes No:20. Retrieved from www.MicroSave.org

Mansori, S. C. S. K., & Safari, M. (2015). A Shariah Perspective Review on Islamic Microfinance. Asian Social Science, 11(9).

McDaniel, S. W., & J.Burnett, J. (1990). Consumer Religiosity And Retail Store Evaluative Criteria. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 18, 101–112.

Millson, H. F. (2013). The Trade-Off Between Sustainability And Outreach : The Experience Of Commercial Microfinance Institutions. In Department of Economics Advisor. Shannon Mudd.

Naceur, S. Ben, Barajas, A., & and Alexander Massara. (2015). “Can Islamic Banking Increase Financial Inclusion?”. IMF Working paper.

Nw, A. M., Fahmi, I., & Beik, I. S. (2016). How Islamic is Islamic Banking in Indonesia ?, 29(2), 153–165.

Okumu, L. J. (2007). The Microfinance Industry in Uganda : Sustainability, Outreach and Regulation. ADB Economics Working Paper Series.

Olivares-Polanco, F. (2005). Commercializing microfinance and deepening outreach? empirical evidence from Latin America. Journal of Microfinance / ESR Review, 7(2), 47–69. Retrieved from https://ojs.lib.byu.edu/spc/index.php/ESR/article/view/1575

Oscar, L. (1966). The Culture Of Poverty. Society, 35(2).

Osotimehin, K. O. C., W.L, Keer, & R. (2001). Determinants Of Microfinance Outreach In South-Western Nigeria: An Empirical Analysis. International Journal of Management and Business Studies, 1(1), 001–007.

Paxton, J. (2002). Depth of Outreach and Its Relation to the Sustainability of Microfinance Institutions. Savings and Development, 26(1), 69–86.

Phlong, P. (2002). Informal Credit Systems In Cambodia. A Published Thesis of.

Qinlan, Z., & Izumida, Y. (2013). Determinants of repayment performance of group lending in China. China Agricultural Economic Review, 5(3), 328–341. https://doi.org/10.1108/CAER-08-2012-0083

R.P, Christen. (2001). Commercialization and Mission Drift: The Transformation of Microfinance in Latin America., Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest. Washington, DC.

Rama K, M. R., & Ph, D. (2014). “Concepts And Measures of Outreach and Sustainability in Microfinance Institutions : A Comprehensive Literature. Review”, 5(21), 41–49.

Rana, M. B. (2008). Cultural Oriented Management Systems of Microfinance Institutions in Bangladesh. Working Paper.

Rhyne, E. (1998). The Yin and Yang of Microfinance: Reaching the Poor and Sustainability. Microbanking Bulletin. Issue, 2, 6–8.

Robbins, S. T., & Judge, T. A. (2008). Organizational BehaviorPublished by Pearson Education (13th ed.). Inc, publishing as Prentice Hall.

Salvatore, D., & Derrick, R. (2002). Theory and Problem of Statistics and Econometrics., The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Schreiner, M. (2002). Aspects of outreach: A framework for discussion of the social benefits of microfinance. Journal of International Development, 14(5), 591–603. https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.908

Seibel, H. D. (2013). Culture and Governance in Microfinance: Desa Pakraman and Lembaga Perkreditan Desa in Bali, 107–108.

Seibel, H. D., & U, P. (1997). Microfinance in Indonesia: An Assessment of Microfinance Institutions Banking with the Poor. Cologne.

Shafranske, E., & Maloney, H. N. (1990). Clinical Psychologists Religious And Spiritual Orientations And Their Practice Of Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 27, 72–78.

USAID, U. S. (2006). Evaluating MFI’s’ Social Performance : A Measurement Tool.

Warthington, Elj. W., & N.G. (2003). The Religious Commitment Inventory-10:Development, Refinement and Validation of a Brief Scale for Research and Counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 84–96.

Weber, R., & Musshoff, O. (2013). Can flexible microfinance loans improve credit access for farmers? Agricultural Finance Review, 73(2), 255–271. https://doi.org/10.1108/AFR-09-2012-0050

Wilson, R. (2011). “The Determinants of Islamic Financial Development and the Constraints on its Growth”. The publication from the IFSB (Islamic Financial Services Board.

Woller, G. (2002). From Market Failure To Marketing Failure : Market Orientation As the Key To Deep Outreach in, 324, 305–324. https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.883

Woller, G. M. (2006). . “Evaluating MFI’s Social Performance : a Measurement Tool”. In USAID (United States Agency International Development) Report.

Wollni, M. (2001). Assessing the poverty outreach of microfinance institutions at household and regional levels, 1–33.

Yaron. (1997). What Makes Rural Finance Institutions Successful?., World Bank Res. Observer, 9, 49–70.

Zerai, B., & Rani, L. (2012). Is There a Tradeoff between Outreach and Sustainability of Micro finance institutions ? Evidence from Indian Microfinance Institutions ( MFIs ), 4(2), 90–99.

Zhang, X., & Kipesha. (2013). Sustainability, Profitability and Outreach Tradeoffs: Evidences from Microfinance Institutions in East Africa. European Journal of Business and Management, 5(8), 136–142.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Hesi Eka Puteri, Zuwardi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Published by LLDIKTI Wilayah X

Khatib Sulaiman Street Padang
West Sumatera, Indonesia
Phone: +62751705637
Fax: +62751705637
Email: [email protected]

E ISSN 2477-7862