Uji Kemampuan Insektisida Botanis Ekstrak Daun Gambir terhadap Hama (Plutella Xylostella. l)



Herwita Idris

Abstract


Upaya pengendalian hama Plutella xylostella. L (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) terutama pada tanaman kubis umumnya dilakukan dengan insektisida sintetik, namun hal diatas dinilai kurang bijaksana karena, biasanya  terjadi penumpukan residu pestisida yang sangat tinggi sehingga kurang baik untuk kesehatan. Dalam masalah ini perlu dilakukan upaya pengendalian yang lebih bijaksana seperti pemakaian insektisida botanis.

Gambir (Uncaria gambir, Roxb) merupakan salah satu tanaman sumber bahan pestisida botanis yang sangat potensial, karena getah daun gambir  mengandung alkaloid berupa senyawa kimia seperti catechin, tannin catecu (tannin/tannat), querchitin, flouresin dan beberapa senyawa lainnya, dimana  senyawa katechin, tannin dan querchitin  bersifat anti mikrobial dan anti oksidan. Sehubungan dengan itu telah dilakukan penelitian tentang uji kemampuan beberapa konsentrasi ekstrak daun gambir terhadap serangga  Plutella xylostella, L di Kebun Percobaan Laing Solok mulai bulan November 2011 sampai bulan Maret 2012. Penelitian memakai rancangan acak lengkap dengan 7 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan, masing-masing perlakuan adalah ekstrak daun gambir konsentrasi 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 7500 ppm dan tanpa ekstrak (0 ppm) sebagai kontrol. Parameter pengamatan meliputi tingkat kematian  dan volume makan larva, serta panjang siklus hidup.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun gambir memiliki sifat insektisidal yang baik sehingga mampu mempengaruhi sifat fisiologis serta horman dari serangga Plutella xylostella. L. Dalam konsentrasi 5000 ppm dan 7500 ppm bahan ini dapat menyebabkan kematian terhadap larva instar (II, III dan  IV) sebesar sebesar (60,70%, 58,70%, 55,06%) dan (71,48%, 61,20%, 56,80%). Kedua konsentrasi juga mampu  menekan volume makan sebesar (27,16%, 79,19%, 12,73%) dan (30,77%, 84,36%, 26,49%). Serta dapat memperpanjang siklus hidup (13,96-17,49) hari.

Kata kunci: Plutella xylostella . L,  aspek biologis, Uncaria gambir,Roxb, insektisida botanis.

 

Plutella xylostella L (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) pest control efforts. on cabbage especially generally performed with synthetic insecticides, but the above is considered less wise because, usually in the accumulation of a very high pesticide residue that is not good for health. In this issue needs to be made more sensible control measures such as the use of botanical insecticides.

Gambier (Uncaria gambier, Roxb) is a botanical pesticide plant material source with huge potential, because the sap gambier leaves contain alkaloids such as chemical compounds such as catechins, tannins catecu (tannin / Tannat), querchitin, flouresin and some other compounds, where the compound katechin , tannin and querchitin is anti-microbial and anti-oxidant. In connection with the research has been done on testing the ability of some leaf extracts gambier concentrations against insects Plutella xylostella .L, at the KP.  Laing Solok starting in November 2011 through Maret 2012. Research used a completely randomized design with 7 treatments and 4 replications, each treatment is the concentration of leaf extract gambier 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 7500 ppm and without extract (0 ppm) as a control. Parameters include the observation of mortality and larvae feed volume, and long life cycle.

The results showed that the leaf extract gambier has insecticidal properties are better able to influence the physiological properties as well as the hormones of insects Plutella xylostella. L. In a 5000 ppm concentration of 7500 ppm and this material can cause the death of the larval instar (II, III and IV) was equal to (60.70%, 58.70%, 55.06%) and (71 , 48%, 61.20%, 56.80%). Both concentrations are also able to reduce the volume of feed (27.16%, 79.19%, 12.73%) and (30.77%, 84.36%, 26.49%). As well as to extend the life cycle (13.96 to 17.49) days.


Keywords: Plutella xylostella. L, biological aspects, Uncaria gambier, Roxb, botanical insecticides.


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