UPAYA PENGGENDALIAN PENYAKIT LAYU STEWART (Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii) PADA TANAMAN JAGUNG MENGGUNAKAN RIZOBAKTERIA



Yulfi Desi, Prima Novia

Abstract


Penyakit layu Stewart pada tanaman jagung disebabkan oleh bakteri Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, merupakan penyakit penting karena dapat mengakibatkan kehilangan hasil. Di Indonesia, penyakit layu Stewart masih tergolong baru dan belum ditemukan cara pengendaliannya. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengupayakan pengendalian penyakit layu Stewart menggunakan Rizobakteria yang berperan sebagai PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rizobacteria) agar dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman jagung sekaligus mengurangi laju perkembangan penyakit layu Stewart. Penelitian berupa percobaan lapangan di dalam polybag menggunakan RAK (Rancangan Acak Kelompok) dengan 11 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Sebagai perlakuan adalah beberapa isolat Rizobakteria yang diperlakukan pada benih jagung. Inokulasi patogen P. stewartii subsp. stewartii dilakukan pada bibit jagung umur 7 hst (hari setelah tanam). Parameter pengamatan antara lain: 1) perkembangan penyakit meliputi: periode inkubasi (hari) dan severitas penyakit (%). 2) pertumbuhan tanaman meliputi: tinggi tanaman (cm), diameter batang (mm), jumlah daun (helai), lebar daun ke-7 (cm), panjang daun ke-7 (cm), muncul bunga jantan (hari), muncul bunga betina (hari), berat buah per tanaman (gr), dan diameter buah tanpa kelobot (mm). Hasil penelitian mendapatkan penggunaan Rizobakteria isolat BRb 251 dapat meningkatkan tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, dan hasil per tanaman jagung. Dengan demikian, berpotensi sebagai PGPR dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman jagung, meskipun belum mampu menunjukkan perannya dalam menurunkan laju perkembangan penyakit layu Stewart.

 

Stewart's wilt disease in corn plants caused by the bacteria Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, that is important because it can cause yield losses. In Indonesia, Stewart’s wilt disease is still relatively new and has not found the way of control. This study aims to seek ways of controlling Stewart's wilt disease by using Rizobakteria which is likely to play a role as PGPR (Plant Growth Promotes Rizobakteria) in order to increase the growth of corn plants while reducing the rate of progression of Stewart’s wilt disease. This research trials in polybag using RAK (Group Random Design) with 11 treatments and 3 replications. As a treatment is several isolates rizobactria treat to seedcorn. Bacterial inoculation was performed on the seeds of maize 7 dap (days after planting). The observation parameters were: 1) disease progression (incubation period (day) and severity of disease (%). 2) plant growth (plant height (cm), stem diameter (mm), number of leaves (strands), width of the leaves of the 7th (cm), length of the leaves of the 7th  (cm), emerging male flowers (day), female flowers appear (day), weight of ear per plant (gr), and ear diameter without husk (mm). Result from this research, found that using rizobacteria isolate BRB 251 can increase: plant height, number of leaves, and yield per plant, so that potential as PGPR in increasing the growth of corn plants, although not yet able to demonstrate its role in reducing the rate of development of Stewart wilt disease.


Keywords


Corn; Stewart’s Wilt; Rate Of Disease Progression; Plant Growth; Rizobacteria

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